Monkey World assists governments around the world to stop the smuggling of primates from the wild.

At the Centre refugees of this illegal trade as well as those that have suffered abuse or neglect are rehabilitated into natural living groups.

Rescue & Rehabilitation
Monkey World | Ape Rescue Centre

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Summer 2004

Monkey World heads for Vietnam

Over the past 5 years, Monkey World has worked in cooperation with the Pingtung Rescue Centre in Taiwan, to rescue and rehabilitate four of the twelve species of gibbon found in the forests of Southeast Asia. In 2001 ten individual gibbons arrived at Monkey World from the Pingtung rescue centre that had been confiscated from the illegal pet trade. Other keepers and myself were amazed at how aggressive and psychologically disturbed gibbons, that were twitching and rocking, could soon be found laughing and enjoying life once they were introduced to others of their own kind. Even some of the most disturbed gibbons, like Alex a golden-cheeked gibbon, showed us that no matter how bad their psychological problems, gibbons appear to have strong social and maternal instincts, that drive them to be with others of their own kind and to give delicate care and protection to babies, even if they were not their own.

In 2000, we were surprised to find that the illegal trade in gibbons was not confined to SE Asia but that one of the rarest species had just been confiscated by HM Customs and Excise in Cambridgshire. A small female golden cheeked gibbon, Peanut, was brought to Monkey World and more recently a male that was confiscated in France, Tito, was also sent to the park. So where are they all coming from, how many are left in the wild, and how can we help stop this trade?

Golden-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates gabriellae) are found in the Southern Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. It is surprising but very little is known about this species other than it is popular in the pet trade. What do they eat, how big are their home ranges, are they monogamous like other species of gibbon, and importantly how many are left in the wild.

One hundred and fifty km north of Ho Chi Minh City, in Vietnam, is Cat Tien National Park. The park was formed in 1978 and now covers approximately 75,000 hectares of secondary mixed forest, containing some of the rarest animals in the world including Vietnamese rhinoceros, Vietnamese crocodile, black-shanked douc langurs, and I hoped a population of golden cheeked gibbons! Monkey World agreed to sponsor both the fieldwork and a study on golden-cheeked gibbons and Cambridge University accepted our proposal and granted me a PhD position. In January 2004 I set off to start my fieldwork, with the plan to find three groups of gibbons in different habitats. A great deal of time would need to be spent to get the gibbons habituated so that they were comfortable to be followed dawn till dusk. If I could habituate the gibbons to my presence then I would be able to collect behavioural and ecological data as well as faecal samples to find out what intestinal parasites they carry as well as identifying direct family members.

In my first week in the National Park, I heard many gibbons chorusing at 5.15am near Da Mi ranger station, in the East of Cat Tien. I was working with some of the best rangers in the park, with over 15 years experience and a passion for primates, when I saw my first gibbons fly by. It was only a fleeting glimpse of a blonde female and then a brownish individual, possibly a sub-adult female changing colour. For the next few months I concentrated my efforts to select a group and to get them familiar with me. For the first few days I focused on a group that was led by a male I named Sebastian. I first saw Sebastian's group eating 'chay mit' fruit (jack fruit). This was more than I could hope for, as this family of four remained eating for an hour and reappeared for several days until finally our sightings of the group started to dwindle. We could not find the group and they called very infrequently. This made me wonder, how often do golden cheeked gibbons call and does this change through the seasons?

While looking for Sebastian's family, we heard a group off to the east call over and over. On route to Sebastian's we came across them, an adult pair, sub adult male, and a small infant still in the yellow colour phase. The young male in this group, who we named David, had an unstoppable urge to sing. His singing was telling any young females in the area that he was there and he was available. Some families only call once a week but David's group calls every day. Some days the parents call for only 5 minutes before David takes over, and he continues for a further 20 - 40 minutes. Because of his high frequency of calls, nearly every day I have no problem locating his group.

While I follow one group, the forest ranger or 'kiem lam' I work with, Mr. Binh, tries to locate neighbouring groups. We have found 8 neighbouring groups this way with home ranges as small as 30 hectares! Four of these groups have young females ready to leave their natal family to find a mate. So, we will be watching closely to find out if David finds a mate close to home or will he move far and wide to find the ideal female, how long will he take to find a mate, and where will he establish his own territory?

David's family lives in a high gibbon density area, probably due to the fact that this area has many fruit trees even though it is secondary forest. In order to compare and contrast the gibbon's behaviour and ecology, I wanted to find my second study group in a poor habitat, and I certainly found it. In the northern sector of Cat Tien, on steep bamboo slopes, we found the second group. It is generally believed that gibbons only occupy primary rainforest where there are tall trees so it took some persuading to get the kiem lam to trek through the dense bamboo. I slipped down the steep slope, hot and tired I entertained myself checking for leeches as the bamboo was in thick mist and no calls were to be heard. Suddenly, I heard bamboo cracking and the noise was coming up the slope towards me! One by one a group of four golden-cheeked gibbons passed me by. They were only 2 metres off the ground, brachiating (swinging from arm to arm) on the bamboo stems. Only a young juvenile saw me and came back to grumble at me before the family continued on. I had found my second group living in the most unlikely and unbelievable habitat. However, the group looked healthy, they were clearly breeding well, and they had learned to move through the bamboo almost as gracefully as they swing through the tops of the trees.

Of course, I was thrilled as this meant that my PhD study was now well underway This was great, but what was also special was my ranger, Mr. Binh, who had spent the last 5 months teaching me how to survive in the forest, how to build a kitchen out of bamboo in 10 minutes, how not to get eaten by ants at night, and how to find gibbons, had learned something new about the gibbons while he was working with me. We were both thrilled to discover that the gibbons that we had been sharing the forest with could also adapt to different habitats in order to survive.

Thailand Breaks International Conservation Treaty

In 1983 Thailand joined the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which meant that Thai authorities were to investigate and prosecute anyone found trafficking in endangered species or their body parts. However, since 2000 Monkey World, in collaboration with the Pingtung Rescue Centre in Taiwan, has been conducting investigations into the illegal trade in endangered primates that are for sale at markets and that are used for entertainment in some of Thailand's largest zoos and safari parks.

Over a three-year period, the team documented dozens and dozens of illegal primates, mainly orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) that were used at zoos as photography props or in circus type shows. The worst offender was Safari World, outside of Bangkok, where the team found at least 45 illegal orangutans being used for mock Thai boxing matches. In the autumn of 2003 Jim and Alison Cronin presented a dossier of three years' investigations to Thai officials at the London Embassy. Since this time, government raids have uncovered 115 illegal orangutans at Safari World, yet a year later and still no one has been charged with a crime and none of the illegal apes have been confiscated. And to add insult to injury, Thailand is due to host the next CITES conference, in Bangkok, starting October 4th. In June 2004, Jim and Alison Cronin flew to Jakarta, Indonesia to meet with Willie Smits, the Director of the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOS) and who currently overseas the care of more than 500 orphan orangutans at several rescue centres in Indonesia. In a meeting with Indonesian forestry and CITES officials, Monkey World offered to pay for the repatriation of all of the illegal orangutans in Thailand if the Indonesian authorities demanded their return. The deal was agreed and the following week a delegation of Indonesian officials flew to Bangkok to meet with their Thai counterparts in order to organize the return. As it turned out, Thai officials were unhelpful and would not let the international delegation even see the orphan orangutans at Safari World until hours before their return flight.

Sadly for the orangutans in Thailand, a non-governmental organisation has been entering discussions about DNA testing prior to the repatriation of any of the illegal orangutans. These discussions have allowed Thai officials to delay what are ridiculous tests and thus delay, and perhaps ultimately avoid, the return of any of the orangutans. Since these discussions began, Safari World tried to claim that 41of orangutans had died in recent months, yet in a subsequent raid by Thai police, the missing apes were found hidden in another park of the safari park. Currently 102 orangutans are accounted for at Safari World - only seven adult females and seven adult males that are capable of reproducing. This means that the remaining 88 would have had to have been born to the seven females - a biological impossibility as orangutans give birth to a single infant approximately every 5 years. While all of the discussions and talking has been ongoing, Thai officials have announced that they will NOT be prosecuting the Director of Safari World and that the park itself will be in charge of DNA testing their orangutans.

Over the past several months, Monkey World supporters have done a wonderful job sending letters to the Thai embassy; to the CITES enforcement officer, John Sellar; and to Elliott Morley, the Minister of the Environment who is attending the up coming CITES conference in Bangkok. To date more than 1000 letters have been sent! And here are the results - the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly:

The Good - Elliott Morley, Minister of the Environment has taken our concerns to heart and has been contacting his Thai counterpart directly to try and get the orangutans returned to Indonesia as well as getting Naree the chimp, who is at another Thai zoo illegally, sent to Monkey World for the medical attention that could save her life. Our MP Jim Knight has also been steadfast in his support of our campaign and has kept Mr. Morley informed of developments, as well as raising this issue during P.M. Question time. Local radio station 2CR and DJ Graham Mack have also been a tremendous support.

The Bad - John Sellar, the senior enforcement officer for CITES Switzerland who had an angry telephone conversation with Jim Cronin telling him to stop having people write to him as this situation was being handled by Thai authorities! If Mr. Sellar cared he could organise for Thailand to be officially sanctioned by CITES as they have done with many other countries that have broken the treaty in the past.

The Ugly - The Thai Government who refuses to acknowledge that there is a huge problem with endangered species smuggling in their country. What is going on in Thailand is an international outrage that is likely to contribute to the extinction of the orangutan in the wild. They should enforce the international CITES treaty that they signed in 1983.

Monkey World will continue to campaign for the release of the orangutans and of Naree the chimpanzee that needs life saving operations. We will also continue to investigate the illegal trade in orangutans throughout SE Asia. Already we believe that more than 30 young orangutans have been illegally smuggled from the wild, into Thailand, and then onto Cambodia where they are now working in the entertainment industry - doing guess what?! Thai boxing! We will keep you posted of our progress and investigations.

Lynda & Tutti by Alison and Jim Cronin

In the spring of 2002 Monkey World was contacted by Lynda and Ian McLaren, an ex-patriot couple that owned and ran a veterinary practice in Saudi Arabia. Weeks prior, a baby chimpanzee had been left at their offices after a Saudi Prince had decided that he did not want his exotic pet anymore. Lynda and Ian took the new arrival under their wing and immediately started to look for a home where the orphan could grow up with others of her own kind.

Over the next couple of months, Lynda made endless trips back and forth from their home in Devon, to Jeddah, to deepest Dorset to meet with us and organise Tutti's safe transit! This was no easy matter as politics and bureaucracy in Saudi Arabia is a potential minefield. However, Lynda's care and determination to see her Tutti get the best care possible made all her trouble appear effortless. Indeed, we had found a kindred spirit. Organising the movement of the chimpanzee was a rollercoaster ride, with good news one day and terrible news the next. Lynda and Ian remained focused at all times but were always respectful and sensitive to the needs and requirements of the Kingdom. Throughout delicate negotiations, Lynda remained a positive and stable force, always pushing forward for Tutti.

We quickly became close friends with the McLaren's and looked forward to seeing Lynda every time she arrived at the park. Tutti finally made it to Monkey World on July 17th 2002, of course accompanied by Lynda and Ian the whole way. After all the excitement we were happy to find that Lynda visited Tutti (and us) just as often as she had while making arrangements for the move. Everyone got to know Lynda, from Jeremy who she entrusted with the care of her baby, to Pat Swan in our gift shop who got regular donations of Tutti's photos to sell. Exactly two years from our first meeting, Lynda was taken from all of us when she lost her battle against cancer. While we had not known the McLaren's for very long we had been lucky to meet such kindred souls. Tutti is now happy with her new family in the Nursery group and her secure future is thanks to the focus, dedication and spirit of two people who cared so much. Lynda will be greatly missed by all of us at the park and all our thoughts are with Ian and her family.

Rafael Arrives from South Africa By Wendy Durham

Rafael, a six and a half year old golden-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates gabriellae) male arrived at Monkey World on September 1st. Unlike most of our gibbons Rafael had been born in captivity at Pretoria Zoo in South Africa. As part of the International Breeding Programme (EEP) it was recommended that he be sent to Monkey World to be paired with one of our rescued, wild caught females. Unlike most of our gibbons that were stolen from the wild, Rafael was reared by his parents, in a family group, that means that he is confident, well adjusted individual.

As Rafael has good gibbon etiquette and is used to group living his introduction to Zoey, one of our females from Taiwan, went extremely well. Within a week of his arrival, following a few medical checks, he was ready to meet Zoey face to face. Two hours into this first meeting the pair were busy grooming and playing. Rafael and Zoey now spend all of their time together and they are showing signs of developing a strong pair bond. It can however, take a very long time for gibbons to establish a bond but for now we have two very happy, playful new friends. We hope that this relationship will grow stronger so that Rafael will play an important role in the EEP and be a good father to his own babies some day soon.

Operant conditioning By LeeAnn K. Bates

For two weeks in March 2004, my husband, Mike Bates, and I were asked to share our knowledge of primate captive management with the Primate Care Staff at Monkey World - Ape Rescue Centre. What we expected was a lot of brainstorming and lengthy discussions on the use of operant conditioning (a.k.a. training) and general primate husbandry. What we received (in addition to this) was pure enthusiasm on the part of the entire Monkey World staff, an opportunity to experience life in the beautiful and quaint English village of Wool, and a broadened appreciation for the amazing work that Jim and Alison and their staff do for rescued primates worldwide.

Both Mike and I currently work with orangutans, lowland gorillas and bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) as well as a multitude of other smaller primates at the San Diego Zoo. Combined, we have over 35 years of animal care experience, at least 20 of those years specifically focused on the great apes and other small primates. We met Jim and Alison the previous year during a visit they made to the San Diego Zoo. After observing some of the operant conditioning that we use in our daily routines with the primates and the building modifications that we made to facilitate these routines, Jim and Alison were convinced that this aspect of animal care could only enhance the day-to-day lives of all of Monkey World's rescued residents.

Our objectives were clear. To look at individual ape and monkey groups and:

  1. provide suggestions on how to resolve ongoing concerns;
  2. establish operant conditioning programs where there was none;
  3. recommend facility modifications that would reduce stress associated with routine medical procedures and necessary animal movements within the park.

Currently, some of the chimpanzees are already acquainted with "training" since the Lead of the Primate Care Staff, Lee Butler, assisted in starting a program with the monkeys and apes over two years ago. Upon request, any of these chimps will present their hands and feet for inspection, open their mouths to allow a visual inspection of their teeth and oral cavity, present their ears, eyes and nose for inspection and present their chest to allow their breathing to be monitored (just to name a few of the behaviors)… and all of this is VOLUNTARY! It does not take much imagination to see the obvious advantages of this type of daily management. However, it takes time, patience and a true understanding of the concepts of operant conditioning.

So what exactly does operant conditioning (casually referred to as 'training') encompass? It's basically the same concepts utilized by dog trainers as well as marine mammal trainers worldwide. First off, it entails a thorough appreciation and understanding of species-specific behaviour. There are many natural behaviours characteristic of any species and many of these are merely reinforced through a reward system until a desired goal is achieved. For example: it is a very natural behaviour for most primates to retrieve a food item with their mouth. Just prior to feeding Rodney, the chimpanzee, a piece of favourite fruit, the keeper says the word "mouth" and presents it toward Rodney's face. When Rodney accepts the fruit with his mouth, a "clicker" or whistle (also referred to as a "bridge") is used to acknowledge this desired response as a correct one. Many times the keeper will also use a verbal affirmation such as "good". After repeated successes, the keeper can reduce the actual size of the fruit until it is completely absent but continues to "bridge" Rodney for the desired response, i.e. his lips touching the keeper's fingers where the food would have been. Eventually, Rodney will know that when the keeper says "mouth" and holds their fingers up to the bars, presenting his lips to touch the keeper's fingers will result in a food reward.

Now what does that accomplish? A lot!! For starters, it's a great way for Rodney to have positive interactions with his caregivers, use a bit of his brainpower to do some problem solving as well as a terrific way to get a close up look at his lips! More importantly, this behaviour can eventually be "shaped" into a more useful behaviour such as "open mouth" where Rodney would open his mouth wide enough for a keeper and/or veterinarian to have a good look at his pearly whites – a very helpful thing to be able to do since anaesthetising the animal would be the only other way to do so. "Shaping" is a bit more technical because the trainer now has to be more selective in what he or she reinforces to obtain the desired behaviour. The important thing to realise is that the initial "mouth" behaviour had to be achieved before any other more technical behaviour could be attempted. As a reminder, all of these interactions are voluntary and there are no negative consequences if the individual prefers to forego on the training session, except maybe missing out on some special treats that are used specifically for training.

Given the unfortunate backgrounds of many of these primates such as being used for laboratory research, entertainment, or personal pets that were neglected some people might have reservations about this so-called "training". After all, if people have controlled them all of their lives why would we want to continue with this type of interaction? What is important to remember is that although the Monkey World staff has every intention of providing each of them a healthy environment and proper social grouping in which to live out the rest of their lives, there are basic needs that have to be met to achieve this in a captive environment. For example, Tuan, the male Bornean orangutan, will have to be moved to a new orangutan complex once it is finished. How does the staff do this without having to anaesthetise this massive ape - which in itself poses the greatest concern since their complex respiratory system puts them at greater risk during these procedures? The answer is simple, desensitise him to sitting in a transport crate for short periods of time. And how is this done? By using the same basic principles of operant conditioning mentioned earlier. The keeper requests that he sit in the crate voluntarily and rewards him for doing so until the doors can be shut and he can tolerate this for a long enough period equivalent to moving him to the other end of the park. What's the other option? Chemically sedate him for the move and risk respiratory distress in the process. We think the former is far nicer for the individual involved.

Mike and I look at what we do as basic problem solving and we thoroughly enjoy every challenge. We look at any particular animal or group of animals and initially determine what the specific goals are for that individual or group. Maybe the goal is to be able to feed animals individually, to monitor food consumption, or to be able to apply antibiotic ointment to a monkey's tail that has chronic infections. Perhaps the goal is to be able to weigh each primate in a group on a daily or weekly basis or to be able to perform an ultrasound procedure on a female orangutan that has had complications with previous pregnancies. Maybe the goal is simply to encourage group cohesiveness. Whatever the scenario, they are all initially handled in the same format. Once the goals are determined, strategies are established. This could include establishing an operant conditioning plan for that specific animal or group of animals. It could also include manipulating the current diet in order to use favoured food items as incentive for new procedures in the routine. Many times the strategies must include modifications to the existing facility to meet these new goals.

In almost all the situations we looked at, part of the strategy was for the staff to continue doing the extraordinary job that they are already doing. Keepers currently provide an amazing amount of enrichment for all of the primate groups. From fresh browse cuttings and mazes of hanging ropes and beautifully woven fire hose hammocks to colorful and complex toys and puzzle feeders. Every outdoor exhibit and indoor bedroom area was equipped with a plethora of items to encourage natural and healthy species-specific behaviour. Not only were the keepers enthusiastic about learning new ways to better their daily husbandry of those in their charge, they were also very receptive to alternative ideas from a "fresh" perspective. We, too, returned to the states with new ideas to apply to caring for the primates that we work with at the San Diego Zoo.

Before our last few days, Mike and I made sure that we addressed each area to establish a list of short-term goals and strategies to work toward those goals. All the keepers were left with new "tools" of the trade and we're excited to catch up on their progress when we return in the summer. We are thankful to have had this opportunity to work with such gracious hosts, staff and primate residents included. Jim and Alison's mission represents what all zoos and rescue centres should strive for – to treat each animal as unique and special individuals and to provide them with the best possible care. They are people of action that exemplify the saying, "if you're not a part of the solution, you're a part of the problem". (Mike and LeeAnn were at Monkey World for their second visit during the time that this edition of the ARC was being published).

Pregnancies and New Arrivals

At the park we currently have two beautiful babies that are growing up rapidly and at least one that we expect some time during March! Baby orangutan Hsiao-ning is progressing quickly after a summer of outdoor climbing and play. She was 1 year old on August 31st and is full of life. Up until recently, the rest of the orangutans were in quarantine after the arrival of A-Mei so Hsiao-ning was not allowed to visit. But now that it is finished, she will begin meeting several of the adult orangutans. We also have plans for a new house and enclosure for her along side of the adults.

Meanwhile baby woolly monkey, Lena, is becoming very independent and has started climbing off of her mum Lorna to explore. Lorna is a good mum and gives Lena a bit of space to explore but she is never far away! Lena is a very precocious youngster and all the others in the group are fond of her.

Back over at the orangutans, we think Tuan is going to be a dad again when Hsiao-quai gives birth to her first baby. Of course it is early days yet as the baby is not expected until March 2005. As it is her first pregnancy, there is a lot that could go wrong but so far Hsiao-quai is taking things in stride. We are also planning to introduce Hsiao-quai to Hsiao-ning so that she has some experience dealing with infants before the baby is born.

Cercopan's Heaven on Earth By Zena Tooze

"They are in heaven" said Chief 'Equator' of Iko Esai in Cross River State, Nigeria when he first saw them. To the 18 red-capped mangabeys he referred to, it must indeed have seemed pretty close to their idea of heaven, as they foraged for insects and cavorted in trees. It had been a very long time for many of them since they had seen their rainforest home, and for some those born in captivity, it was the first time.

So what is their story and how did they get there? When Cercopan, a primate conservation project in Nigeria, was finally able to finish their first electrified, open-topped enclosure in the rainforest of Cross River State (thanks to Monkey World!), these lucky monkeys were the first to be transferred by helicopter from the state capital of Calabar, where Cercopan headquarters is located (as well as 75 other monkeys rescued from the bushmeat trade).

Cercopan was established in 1995 and has evolved over the past 9 years into the 'Centre for Education, Research and Conservation of Primates and Nature'. Their mission is to conserve Nigeria's primates through sustainable rainforest conservation, community education, primate rehabilitation and research. Zena Tooze, Cercopan's founder and Director, first met Jim and Alison Cronin several years ago, when she came to Monkey World seeking advice on building electric fence enclosures for small primates. In 2002 Jim and Alison generously provided the design, materials and funds to build Cercopan's first open-topped rainforest enclosure.

It took a long time to pull everything together, but the satellite was finished December 2003 (where they acclimatized for 2 months) and the main enclosure was finally finished in February 2004 - and what an exciting occasion it was. From the moment the helicopter took off from Calabar, fully loaded with monkeys, Cercopan staff and the local broadcasting corporation for the forest site, there was no looking back.

Cercopan's host community Iko Esai welcomed everyone warmly with music, drumming and traditional dances from both children and adults. As the helicopter touched down in the school playing field a huge excited roar went up from the crowd gathered who had never seen such an event before, not to mention the many that had also never seen these monkeys up close, as they have been exterminated from their nearby forest. Cercopan has been working together with the people of Iko Esai for over 5 years now, and have a legal agreement with the community that protects over 3,000 hectares of rainforest from logging and farming, and all primates from hunting and trapping. This protected area also acts as a buffer to further protect the adjacent 3000 square kilometre national park. Community awareness, education and development programmes in Iko Esai have created a solid foundation, based on mutual trust and understanding, for Cercopan's centre.

Adults Clyde, Odudu (the oldest at 10 years of age, and the dominant male and female), Jamie, Amanda, Banja, Demola, Sunday and Zombi had all experienced their mothers being shot for bushmeat when they were tiny infants, before being dragged off to markets and villages across Nigeria. Fortunately, they were donated to Cercopan, and spent the next few years getting healthy, both mentally and physically, and learning to live with monkeys again. The other 10 were born in captivity as part of Cercopan's captive breeding programme (some now adults with their own offspring) for threatened red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus). When the mangabeys were first released from the familiar satellite cage into the forest enclosure, the whole group was a bit nervous, and stayed together in tight formation. There was so much that was new, including the stream running from side to side of their 1 hectare home. Never seen that before! Very soon though everyone settled in, and before long the youngsters were climbing higher than they ever had before, with mum nervously looking on, often rushing to collect their offspring before they got too high! After 2 months the mangabeys were joined by a group of 7 mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) to form the first mixed species group in a rehabilitation project.

A huge thank you from the Director and all staff of Cercopan goes to Jim, Alison and Monkey World for helping create a little 'heaven on earth' for 25 very happy monkeys.

Letter From The Editor

Over the summer the park has been busy with people coming to visit the monkeys and apes from around the world. Jim and I are always amazed when walking through the park we meet people from South Africa, Australia, Singapore, Brazil, America, Canada, Holland, Denmark and of course from all over the British Isles. We have also had many international colleagues visiting
including Mario and Leasbet Hoedemaker from Amersfoort Zoo in Holland, the Director of Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam, Mr Mui and his Technical Director and Translator, Mr Khanh and Mr Phong, the Director of Pingtung Rescue Centre in Taiwan and his wife, Dr Kurtis and Marian Pei, and Mike and LeeAnn Bates from San Diego Zoo who have been working with our Primate Care Staff on operant conditioning. Their article, in this issue, is very interesting and shows what a good relationship the monkeys and apes can have with their carers when basic lines of communication are opened. We look forward to welcoming them back again in the near future.

Our supporters have been a great help…as always. Most importantly, we want to thank all of those who went to the trouble to send letters to the Thai Embassy, the CITES office in Switzerland, and the Minister of the Environment. We have received more than 1000 copies of these letters and are overwhelmed by all your help. There is no doubt that this kind of support has made a difference and we now have been offered the full and direct support of the Environment Minister, Elliott Morley. Others have helped our rescue and rehabilitation work by donating goods such as fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, dried fruit, bread, rice cakes, baby milk, eggs, vitamins, dog toys, basketballs blankets, sheets, towels, fire hoses, dog crates, a baby car seat, and disposable gloves. Knitted jumpers, cuddly toys, figurines, and artwork were also donated to sell in the shop. Everything is used and greatly appreciated by the monkeys and apes. We have received generous donations and some have raised money by sponsored workouts, school collections, donations instead of birthday, wedding, or leaving presents, coppers collections, quiz nights, pet care services, market stall collections, fund-raising parties, buying lottery tickets, inkjet cartridge collections, 24 hour fasts, car boot sales, and cake stalls.

Special mention needs to be given to Rivita, Poole for donating crackers and rice cakes, Rolf C. Hagen Ltd. For sending us many heavy dog toys, Joah's Ark Charity and Quaker Concern for Animals for a generous donations, the Michael Chambers Foundation for donating pet toys, the Community Nursing Team at Wareham Health Centre for sending us medical supplies, the
1st New Forest North Cub Pack and Foxhills Junior School for fund raising, Lorraine and Alan Yates for a huge donation of stationary, fruit, and vegetables, Mr AJ Walker for regular donations of jam for the chimp termite mound, Lawrence Page and Penni Dymond for sponsored marathon runs, and Joe Alexander (age 8) for a sponsored climb of Mt. Snowdon. You have all been a great help and it is appreciated. Special thanks also go to everyone involved in Chimpfest 2004. On the last bank holiday a group of musician from Leicester came to Monkey World and entertained visitors with their unique selection of monkey and ape hits. It was a beautiful day and we all enjoyed their performances.

On a sadder note, many people who regularly visited the park or were adoptive parents have passed away. Our condolences go out to the family and friends of Mr. Harold "Jammy" Jarvis,
Mr. Christopher Simpson, Mrs. DI Tipple, Mrs. Mabel Wills, Mrs. Starling, Mr. Manfred Schneider, Mr. Richards, Mr Derrick Basil, Ms Gemma Hine, Mr. Arthur "John" Burch, Ms. Nancy Bickerstaffe, and Mrs. Shirley Machin. They will all be greatly missed.

On the animal side, it has been a relatively uneventful summer with everyone enjoying the warm weather, sunshine, and natural environments. In the next issue of the Ape Rescue Chronicle it is time for the annual review of everyone at the park but I wanted to give a quick update on Alberto the chimp and Gismo the capuchin monkey. You may remember that both males had lived on their own for approximately 15 years and both were very unsociable. It has taken a long time but Alberto is now living full time with 3 (and sometimes 4) other chimps and he is having a good time. He enjoys playing, laughing, and roughhousing with the other boys and we are hopeful that soon the bachelor group will be 11 strong. Gismo has also done remarkably well and is now living full time with Jerry and many days Terri decides to join the two boys. Gismo was very disturbed when we first brought him to the park but everyday he is beginning to trust us more and more and feel confident in his new home. Of course the biggest change in his behaviour was when we felt
confident enough to let him stay with Jerry. Quickly Gismo realised that if Jerry was calm and happy, he could be too. Our Primate Care Staff have worked very hard on these two particular cases in order to help these traumatised rescued primates feel secure and confident in their new homes. They can be proud of their efforts.